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dc.contributor.advisor Vera, Hugo en_US Foroughi, Edris 2021-10-08T19:02:20Z 2021-10-08T19:02:20Z 2021-10-08
dc.description.abstract There is a common understanding around the world that music is the language of emotions ‎‎and feelings. Much research has been conducted on how music changes the feelings and emotions of ‎the ‎listener. It is important that a singer performs in a way that the emotional message of the music ‎and the ‎words are transmitted to the audience effectively. This graduate recital includes songs and ‎arias from ‎different eras as well as different languages and cultures. All of those elements join ‎together in order to emphasize various emotions and moods through singing. Thus, the purpose of ‎choosing this ‎repertoire is to stretch the musical and emotional communication skills of the ‎performer in presenting ‎works of diverse composers from the Baroque to the twenty-first century. ‎These selections include ‎ Italian songs, German Lieder, songs by Ralph Vaughan Williams, ‎contemporary American ‎songs, and contemporary Iranian songs, as well as Se Vuol Ballare, an ‎Italian aria from The ‎Marriage of Figaro by Mozart, and Avant de quitter ces lieux, a French aria ‎from the opera Faust by Charles ‎Gounod.‎ The first set in this recital is comprised of early Italian songs, including Per la Gloria ‎‎d'adorarvi by Giovanni Bononcini (1670 -1747), Amarilli, mia bella by Giulio Caccini (1551-‎‎‎1618), Il mio bel foco by Bartolomeo Conti (1682 - July 1732), and Lasciatemi morire by ‎‎Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643).‎ The first song, Per la Gloria d'adorarvi, is from the Italian opera, Griselda, by Giovanni ‎‎Bononcini. This aria has become a famous and popular concert and recital piece, ‎which is ‎performed by many classical singers around the world. The vocal line is quite challenging and ‎requires excellent agility from the singer.‎ The second song in this group is Amarilli mia bella, which is a solo madrigal by the late ‎‎Renaissance and early Baroque composer, Giulio Caccini; he is one of the pioneers in the genre of ‎‎opera. Caccini published this solo madrigal with a dozen of other madrigals in his Le nuove ‎‎musiche in 1601-1602. Le nuove musiche is the first published solo madrigals for voice and ‎‎continue. The poem is by Giovanni Battista Guarini (1538-1612).‎ The third song, Il mio bel foco, has long been attributed to a Venetian composer and ‎‎statesman, Benedetto Marcello, however recent scholars identify Bartolomeo Conti as the ‎likely ‎composer of the song. Francesco Bartolomeo Conti, who was born in Florence, Italy, was a ‎composer and a mandolin player. He composed in different genres, including 16 operas, 9 ‎oratorios, and 50 cantatas.‎ The last piece in this set is Lasciatemi morire, the first part of a four-part lament from ‎the ‎opera Arianna by Claudio Monteverdi, which was composed in 1608. The opera was based on ‎the ‎Greek legend of Ariadne. Monteverdi published the Lamento d'Arianna as a separate entity in ‎‎‎1623. Like Giulio Caccini, he was a pioneer in the development of opera; and he is considered a ‎‎crucial transitional figure between the Renaissance and Baroque periods of music.‎ The second set is comprised of five German Lieder from the early romantic to the late ‎‎romantic era, which includes An die Musik by Franz Schubert (1797-1828), Der Gärtner by ‎Hugo ‎Wolf (1860-1903), Rastlose Liebe another song by Franz Schubert, Die Nacht by ‎Richard Strauss ‎‎(1864 -1949), and Sonntag by Johannes Brahms (1833-1897).‎ ‎An die Musik is the first song of the second set. Franz Schubert composed this song in ‎‎March 1817 for solo voice and piano, on a poem by his close friend, Franz von Schober. An die ‎‎Musik is one of two poems by Schober that express the benefit and beauty of music in a dark ‎and ‎sad world. The second poem in this pair is Trost im Liede, which also has been set to music ‎by ‎Schubert. These two songs also express the relationship of Schubert and Schober. They were ‎very ‎close friends and lived together for several years. In both songs, they expressed their love ‎for music ‎and the wondrous role of music in their lives. ‎ The second song in this set is Der Gärtner by Hugo Wolf. This is a romantic song that ‎features a ‎gardener singing to a princess. The poem is by Eduard Mörike (1804-1875). Many of his ‎poems ‎were set to music by Wolf and other composers such as Ignaz Lachner and, their ‎contemporary, ‎Wilhelm Killmayer.‎ The third song in this set, Rastlose Liebe, is also by Schubert with a poem by the famous ‎German ‎poet and novelist, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832). Rastlose Liebe, which ‎means restless ‎love, is a love song featuring a lover passionately singing for her or his beloved one. ‎Schubert marked ‎the music "Fast, with passion" to convey a restless love and to create a wide ‎dynamic range with different ‎variations in the music. The word painting of the snowstorm, featured ‎in the opening words of the piece in the introduction, is very interesting. This song ‎is dedicated to ‎Anton Salieri by Schubert. Salieri was Schubert's music theory and composition ‎teacher and had a ‎prominent role in Schubert's growth as a composer. ‎ The fourth song in this section is Die Nacht by Strauss. Hermann Glim, the Austrian poet of ‎this song, describes the night, which steals everything, and the fear of a lover, who is afraid of ‎losing his beloved. Strauss with a whispering-like vocal part, and a quiet accompaniment, ‎beautifully conveys the atmosphere of the night and the fear felt by the lover in this piece. By ‎changing the tonal center throughout the song, Strauss emphasizes the idea of being apprehensive ‎about losing something or someone precious to you. ‎ The last song in this set is Sonntag by Johannes Brahms, which was composed by 1860. The ‎poem is by Johann Ludwig Uhland. Brahms chose to set a folk-like melody for Uhland's words. ‎This poem is about a young man who only has the chance to see his beautiful beloved every Sunday ‎and he wishes so much that he could be with her today. Brahms emphasizes the enthusiasm of the ‎lover with a dance-like meter and chooses the higher pitches for the lover's heightened longing.‎ The third section is comprised of a single Italian aria from an opera buffa, The ‎Marriage of ‎Figaro, by Wolfgang A. Mozart (1756-1791), one of the greatest composers of all the time. The ‎‎Marriage of Figaro tells the story of two servants, Figaro and Susanna, who succeed in getting ‎married. Their employer, who is a philanderer, tries to seduce Susanna, but Figaro foils his efforts ‎and teaches him a lesson in faithfulness. Se Vuol Ballare is the aria in which Figaro vows to teach ‎the count a very important lesson. This aria is a cavatina, which means a shorter than normal song ‎for a character. Mozart composed this opera in 1786 with a libretto written by Lorenzo Da Ponte, ‎who also wrote the libretto of two other operas of Mozart, Don Giovanni (1787), and Così fan ‎tutte (1790). Lorenzo Da Ponte also wrote twenty-five other libretti for ten other composers, ‎including Antonio Salieri, Giuseppe Gazzaniga, Giuseppe Francesco Bianchi and, Peter Winter.‎ Following the Mozart aria is a more serious French aria, Avant de quitter ces lieux from ‎Charles Gounod's opera, Faust (1859). The libretto is by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré, and it is‎ ‎inspired by Goethe's Faust, Part-I. Charles Gounod's is also known for his other famous opera, ‎Roméo et Juliette (1867). Both the librettists of Faust wrote other libretti for other well-known ‎French composers such as Jacques Offenbach and Victor Massé.‎ The fifth set of this recital is a selection of four songs by Ralph Vaughan Williams. ‎Vaughan Williams was an English composer, who composed in different genres in his nearly sixty ‎years of professional composition. His works include secular and religious vocal pieces, operas, ‎ballets, chamber music, and orchestral compositions. Following in the steps of Henry Purcell and ‎Edward Elgar, Vaughan Williams became one of the most influential figures in English music.‎ The Vagabond is the first song in this set from Vaughan Williams' song cycle Songs of ‎Travel, which was composed between 1901 and 1904. The text is by Robert Louis Stevenson, a ‎Scottish novelist, poet and travel writer.‎‏ ‏‎ The march-like opening conveys the victorious walking ‎of the traveler of the story, who seems carefree and happy to live outdoors and require nothing of a ‎material nature. The heavy chords of the piano convey that the journey can be difficult.‎ The second song of this set is The Sky above the Roof, which is set to Mabel Dearmer's ‎poem. Dearmer wrote her poem based on Paul Verlaine's French poem. In the original poem, ‎Verlaine writes of the view from the prison window and of having wasted his life.‎ The Call is the next song in this set, and is from Vaughan Williams' Five Mystical Songs. ‎In this work, Vaughan Williams set music to seventeenth-century poems from English poet and ‎Anglican priest, George Herbert (1593-1633). Five Mystical Songs includes four poems of George ‎Herbert's collection The Temple: Sacred Poems. Vaughan Williams divided one of the poems, ‎Easter, into two parts and made a five-song set. He composed this collection for a baritone soloist ‎and offered several choices for the accompaniment, such as piano only, piano and string quintet, ‎and its premiere form, which was with orchestra and SATB chorus. The Call is the fourth song in ‎this collection. ‎ In this recital an additional song will be sung from the Five Mystical Songs. The fourth ‎song in this set is I Got Me Flowers, a baritone's love song from the Five Mystical Songs. It is a ‎simple but moving song for baritone. ‎ The sixth set includes four contemporary American songs, and begins with a comedic song, ‎I Bought Me a Cat, by Aaron Copland (1900-1990), an American composer and conductor. Many ‎scholars consider his works to be the true and authentic sound of American music. His well-known ‎works are his compositions during 1930s and 1940s, which Copland labeled as his "vernacular" ‎sound. ‎ I bought Me a Cat is an American folk nonsense children's song that Benjamin Britten ‎asked Copland to arrange, along with four other folk songs. Copland originally arranged these ‎songs for male soloist and piano. This set of old American songs premiered in 1950. ‎ The second song in this set is A Horse with Wings composed by Ricky Ian Gordon (1956-‎present), an American composer. Gordon became a leading writer of vocal music ranging from art ‎song, to opera, to musical theater in the late 20th century and early 21st century. A Horse with ‎Wings is from an album of songs by the same name, which Gordon released with himself as the ‎soloist. The text of this song is also written by Gordon on which he comments on the sadness of this ‎world and wishes for a better world.‎ The third song in this set, Long Time Ago, is another American folk song. This song is also ‎among the first set of old American songs arranged by Aaron Copland. He discovered this ballad ‎from a song in the Harris collection. The poem is attributed to George P. Morris (1802 - 1864), an ‎American poet and songwriter who wrote the opera The Maid of Saxony.‎ The last song of this set is called Look down, Fair Moon by Ned Rorem (1923-present), ‎another American major composer of the 20th century who composed remarkable works in ‎different genres such as opera, orchestral compositions, chamber music, choral works and a ‎significant amount of songs. He composed Look down, Fair Moon in 1957 on a poem by Walt ‎Whitman (1819 - 1892), an American poet, essayist and humanist. Whitman is one of most ‎influential poets in the American canon, often called the father of free verse. He worked in ‎hospitals during the war while caring for the wounded. His Look down Fair Moon is about the ‎tragedy of war and the senseless loss of war. Ned Rorem helped us to feel the sadness of this image ‎with his slow minor-ish melody, and pulse-like accompaniment, which conveys the sound of the ‎inevitability of death. ‎ The last set of this recital belongs to Iranian contemporary songs. Western classical music ‎came to Iran around 1886 by Alfred Jean Baptiste Lemaire (1842 -1907), a French military ‎musician and composer. Since then, many Iranian composers who studied Western Classical music ‎contributed to this genre growing in Iran. One of these composers is Esfandiar Monfaredzadeh ‎‎(1942 -present).‎ Young Monfaredzadeh was one of the composers for the youth orchestra at Iran's national ‎radio station. He was also one of the pioneers in Iranian film scoring. He has composed some of the ‎most popular and recognizable film scores in Iranian cinematic history. He also composed several ‎art songs. With the Islamic revolution of 1979, he stopped working to protest against the ‎revolutionary government, which banned female singing and limited musical activities. He has left ‎Iran forever, and decided to take a self-imposed exile which continues to this day.‎ The first song in this group is Ye Shab-e Mahtab (A Moonlight Night) by Monfaredzadeh. ‎He composed this song on a poem by Ahmad Shamlou (1925 - 2000), one the most influential ‎poets of modern Iran. The song is clearly against a tyrannical government, which caused darkness ‎in the city in an oppressive way, and the dreams of a people who hope that one night the moon will ‎come out and push away the darkness.‎ The second song, Gonjeshkak-e Ashi-Mashi, is another song by Monfaredzadeh. The poem ‎is based on a traditional children's story by Hasan Hatami (1935-2016). Initially, Monfaredzadeh ‎set music to this poem to use it as a part of his film scoring for the Iranian film, The Dears. Later, ‎the song was performed separately as a solo for voice. Although this song is not clearly a political ‎song, many interpreted as an anti tyranny song. Basically, the poem is about a sparrow, which ‎represents innocent people. The sparrow is warned by the narrator not to get close to the people in ‎power, otherwise you could get killed. The vocal melody is in the Phrygian mode, which makes the ‎song sad and dark.‎ The third song in this set, Jome Bazar (Friday Farmers Market), is attributed to Ahamad ‎Ashour Pour (1917-2007). Ashour Pour's compositions were heavily influenced by European folk ‎songs. Jahangir Sartip Pour (1903-1992) set words on most of the Ashour Pour's music. Jome ‎Bazar is known as a folk song, since the words of the song is in Gilaki, which is one of the dialects ‎of the Iranian language from the north.‎ The last song in this set and in this recital is called Jan-e Maryam (My Beloved, ‎Maryam). ‎Kambiz Mojdehi (fl. Mid 20th century)‎‏‎ an Iranian composer and acorrdion player, set ‎‏music to a ‎poem by his friend Mohammad Nouri‎,‎‏ ‏an‏‎ Iranian classical singer. Nouri explained how it ‎‏was ‎‏inspired by the folkloric music from north side of Iran and created Jane-e Maryam. The song was ‎‎premiered sometime around 1960s by Mohammad Nouri.‎ A performer can better communicate with the audience when understanding the background ‎of the music and the text. To have a more powerful impact on audiences, a performer should study ‎the origin of ‎the piece and be familiar with the composer and poet, in order to imagine their ‎feelings and to understand their purpose ‎for creating these songs and arias.‎ I will be performing various pieces from different composers in my recital, in ‎five different ‎languages, and from different cultural backgrounds of different eras, but what all of them ‎have in ‎common is the shared emotions and feelings of their creators. In all these pieces, I hope to express ‎‎the original emotions of the creators as well as my own deep feelings for music when sharing these ‎compositions with my audience.‎
dc.description.statementofresponsibility by Edris Foroughi en_US
dc.format.extent 13, 15 pages en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher California State University, Northridge en_US
dc.subject baritone
dc.subject recital
dc.subject Edris Foroughi
dc.subject Vocal performance
dc.subject master recital
dc.subject Persian singer
dc.subject Iranian opera singer
dc.subject multilingual recital
dc.subject.other Dissertations, Academic -- CSUN -- Music. en_US
dc.title Graduate recital in voice
dc.type Thesis en_US 2021-10-08T19:02:20Z
dc.contributor.department Music en_US M.M. en_US
dc.contributor.committeeMember Ketchie-saar, Diane en_US
dc.contributor.committeeMember Baker, Katherine en_US

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