Show simple item record Shodahl, Skye en Banerjee, Meeta en Russell, Aqueelah en Blackman, Kacie C.A. en 2022-11-07T20:11:48Z 2022-11-07T20:11:48Z 2022 en
dc.identifier.citation The California Geographer 60: 31-47. en
dc.identifier.issn 0575-5700 en
dc.description.abstract The World Health Organization adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes to prompt governments to regulate the marketing of artificial supplementation. This code was designed to protect the most vulnerable (babies) by ending unethical infant formula marketing. The United States (U.S.) signed on to support this code, yet there is little governance to enforce it. As a result, infant formula marketing continues to disproportionately target Black families and undermine efforts for breastfeeding promotion in the U.S. This is problematic as rates of breastfeeding among Black populations are consistently the lowest compared to other races/ethnicities (with White populations having highest breastfeeding rates). To gain a deeper understanding of the social barriers to breastfeeding among ethnic minority lactating persons, the current study investigates in-store marketing and health claims of infant feeding products across Black and White communities in Los Angeles County. Trained researchers utilized observational methods to explore marketing aspects and health claims of infant formula, follow-on formula, and galactagogues products in June 2019. This was a cross-sectional study that included 47 retail stores in Black (N=24) and White (N=23) communities across 20 zip codes. Findings indicate that stores in majority White zip codes, compared to those in majority Black zip codes, had greater multi-pack discount marketing of infant formula and bottled purified water marketed for mixing infant formula (17.4 percent Black vs. 60.9 percent White, p<0.01). Additionally, stores in majority White zip codes, compared to those in majority Black zip codes, had more infant formula products and galactagogue beverage products with health claims on their label. The results of this study suggest a minimal difference in in-store marketing and use of health claims on labels for infant formula, follow-on formula, and galactagogues products between stores in the communities included in this study. Overall, the findings underscore an opportunity for the marketing and education of safe and quality galactagogue products for persons who may be struggling with initiating and maintaining lactation. en
dc.format application/pdf en
dc.format.extent 17 pages en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher California Geographical Society en
dc.rights Copyright 2022 by the California Geographical Society en
dc.subject maternal and infant health en
dc.subject artificial breast milk substitute en
dc.subject marketing strategies en
dc.subject breastfeeding en
dc.subject health disparities en
dc.title The Effects of In-store Marketing of Infant Formula and Lactation Support Products Among Stores in Black and White Zip Codes Across Los Angeles County en
dc.type Article en

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